Split Infinitive

Infinitives are verbs independent of tenses, number and person. These are the to be forms of the verb.

tumblr_inline_mz56n2YcOy1qbolbn

We often place an adverb before or after these infinitives and split the infinitives.

Split infinitive is a grammatical construction in English language, where a word or phrase, usually an adverb or an adverbial phrase is inserted in between to and verb, in its infinitive form.

However the construction is still a subject of disagreement among English speakers as to whether abstaining from split infinitives is grammatically correct or not. This construction can make a piece of writing ambiguous, so it should be avoided as much as possible.

This video is full of split infinitives……………………………………………….

Look at this sentence: –

I decided to quietly go away from the party.

To quietly go away is a split infinitive where adverb (quietly) breaks/splits the infinitive (to go).

This sentence could be written in following ways to avoid split infinitive:
I decided to go away quietly from the party.
Or
I decided to go away from the party quietly.

SplitInfinitive


The heading of the article needs correction in split infinitive.

It should be:–

Coffee Addiction: How to kick the habit naturally.

Finite & NON Finite Verbs

Verb (doing word)

A verb is derived from the Latin word verbum which expresses action, occurrence or state of being.
Mahi answered the question. [action]
She became the C.R of the class. [occurrence]
Rahul is an intelligent student. [state of being]
Types of verb is determined by the kinds of words that follow it and the relationship those words have with the verb itself.
Verbs are classified as:

  • Simple and Complex
  • Principal verb (main verb) and Auxiliary verb (helping verb)
  • Transitive and Intransitive
  • Finite and Non- Finite
  • Linking Verbs

Finite and Non- Finite Verbs

Finite Verbs are those verbs that have a definite relation with the subject and can be changed according to tense (Present/Past/Future) or person {first (I/we)/second (you)/third person (he, she, they, it)} or number (singular/plural) or voice (Active/Passive).

Finite Verb, write can be changed with the change of tense/person /number/voice.

Examples:

  1. She writes an article in the magazine.
  2. She wrote an article in the magazine.
  3. They write an article in the magazine
  4. An article is written by her in the magazine.

*In above sentences, finite verb, write, keeps changing.

*In example 4, Form of Be (is) is also a finite verb.

Non Finite Verbs do not change but remain constant with the change in tense or number or person. They do not indicate an action of the subject but function as nouns, adverbs and adjectives in a sentence.

Example
He likes swimming.
They like swimming.
We liked swimming.
*In above sentences, non-finite verb, swimming does not change.

verbs-5-638

Gerund Vs Participle

Gerund is a non-finite verb form which ends in – ing but unlike present participle (verb+ing) which functions as an adjective or adverb, it functions as a noun.
Ex
Swimming is my hobby. (Gerund, noun [name of an activity])
He jumped into swimming– pool. (Present participle, [(adjective), quality/kind of pool is swimming])
Gerund is used as a subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence.
Examples:
Cycling is the best exercise. subject of sentence
• Her hobby is cycling. complement of sentence
• I enjoy cycling. object of sentence
• His mother scolded him for cycling fast. object of preposition

Example:

Hearing, a loud noise, we ran to the window. [ hearing, participle, qualifying the pronoun we]

Praising all alike is praising none. [praising, gerund, subject of the verb, is]

The infinitive verb

The infinitive verb is considered the basic dictionary form of a verb when used non-finitely, with or without the particle ‘to’ (eg. to dance, to write, to play). The form without to is called the bare infinitive, and the form with to is called the full infinitive or to-infinitive.

Infinitive (to verb) can be used in following ways:

 
Infinitive
Introduced by a main verb plus to Functioning as noun phrase Functioning as the modifier of a noun Function as an adverb Function as an adjective
 
Swim
I love to swim. To swim is a good exercise. The reason to swim here is that I like this place. I came to swim here. Go to swimming pool to swim.

Infinitive when not preceded by to is called bare infinitive.

 Bare infinitive can be used following ways:

Introduced by a modal or auxiliary verb Introduced by a main verb
You may leave now. One should do one’s duty. Let(Main verb) him go.He made(Main verb) them stand at the corner.  

How to handle complaints effectively?

How to handle complaints effectively?

At some point, everyone in business has to deal with an upset customer. The challenge is to handle the situation in a way that leaves the customer thinking you operate a great company. It may seem counter-intuitive, but a business owner’s ability to effectively deal with customer complaints provides a great opportunity to turn dissatisfied customers into active promoters of the business. There are different ways to handle complaints effectively:

  1. Thank them for their complaint. Give positive recognition by saying, right off the bat, “Thank you for reaching out.”Show appreciation for the complaining customer’s time, effort, communication, feedback, and suggestions. Always keep in mind that the customer didn’t have to come to you at all. He could have simply taken his business to your competitor. When a customer gives you the opportunity to recover their service, be grateful.
  2.  Don’t be defensive.
  3. Listen carefully to what the customer has to say, and let them finish. Don’t get defensive. The customer is not attacking you personally; he or she has a problem and is upset. Repeat back what you are hearing to show that you have listened.
  4. Ask questions in a caring and concerned manner. The more information you can get from the customer, the better you will understand his or her perspective. I’ve learned it’s easier to ask questions than to jump to conclusions.
  5. Put yourself in their shoes. As a business owner, your goal is to solve the problem, not argue. The customer needs to feel like you’re on his or her side and that you empathize with the situation.
  6. Apologize without blaming. When a customer senses that you are sincerely sorry, it usually diffuses the situation. Don’t blame another person or department. Just say, “I’m sorry about that.”
  7. Solve the problem, or find someone who can solve it quickly.
    Research indicates that customers prefer the person they are speaking with to instantly solve their problem. When complaints are moved up the chain of command, they become more expensive to handle and only add to the customer’s frustration.
  8. Explain the company’s desire to improve. When you understand what the customer values, show them things your company does that helps you perform well in that area.
  9. Educate your customer. Apart of hearing the customer out is answering any questions they ask about their specific situation. Provide additional, useful information. If they ask a question that you can’t answer or don’t know the answer to, tell them you’ll find out the answer and get back to them. And then actually follow through. Contact the customer with the answers they requested.
  10. Action speaks louder than words. After relieving customer through words, one should act as promised. False words without action will not help for long.

Phonetics

Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech, or in the case of sign languages,the equivalent aspects of sign. The Encyclopedia Britannica defines language as “a system of conventional spoken or written symbols by means of which human beings , as members of social groups and participants in its culture, communicate.” The term phone means sound; therefore phonetics is the study of the sounds of the spoken form of the language. It is a science which studies the speech processes.

Writing as well as speaking skills are essential to achieve linguistic competence. Correct pronunciation is a very important aspect of language. In other words, how we speak has now become as important as what we speak.

Phoneme:

The term phonemes refers to the segment of sound in a specified language. It distinguishes one word from the other. /p/ and /b/ are separate phonemes in English because they distinguish such words as pet and bet.

There are 44 speech sounds or phonemes. These phonemes are divided into vowels and consonants. Vowel sounds are known as vocoids and consonant sounds are known as contoids. There are 20 vowels sound and 24 consonants sound

Vowel are all voiced sounds. There is no articulation of organ of speech is required to say a vowel.Vowel sounds are classified as pure vowels(Monopthongs) and Diphthongs. Diphthongs are a combination of two short vowels. These vowel sounds change their quality continually.

Consonants are produced by a closure or narrowing of the air passage. 

learn-phonetics-hindi.1280x600

 Allophones

The term allophone refers to the sound segments that are members of the same phoneme. A phoneme has several variants. These variants of phonemes are called allophones. 

For example: Cat, sick, kite are three distinctly articulated sound but they belong to the same phoneme(/k/) and are called allophone.

Vowels

Long Vowels

sheep
farm
cool
ɔː horse
ɜː bird
Short Vowels

ɪ ship e head
æ hat o Pot
ʊ foot ə upper
ɒ sock (UK)
ʌ cup    

English Consonants

Diphthongs

Stress, Rhythm and Intonation

Stress: Stress may be defined as the force which we utter a word.

Syllable: A syllable may be defined as a unit of pronunciation with one vowel sound and one or more consonants sound. Words may consist of one, two or three syllables.

Words with one syllable are called monosyllabic.

Red, hot, man, mark

Words with two syllables are known as disyllabic.

leader, remark

Words with more than two syllables are known polysyllabic.

beautiful, leadership, remarkable

Stressed Syllable

In disyllabic or polysyllabic words, one syllable is more prominent than the others. This syllable is called a stressed or accented syllable. The stresses syllable is loud, long in duration, and articulated clearly.

Primary stress and Secondary stress
In longer English words, there may be more than one stressed syllable. In any word, the syllable with the strongest stress is said to have primary stress. In the word, introduction. the third syllable, –duc- is uttered with more force.

In any disyllabic or polysyllabic word, the syllable that has relatively weak stress is said to have secondary stress. This indicates that this particular syllable is the next most prominent syllable. For example in the word Examination, primary stress is on    -na- while secondary stress is on -xa-

Rhythm

In a sentence of connected speech, some syllables are stresses while some syllables remain unstressed. This phenomenon gives the English language its characteristic rhythm.

Intonation

Intonation refers to the rise and fall of the pitch according to the mood or relevance of information.

Active- Passive Voice

                                    Active and Passive Voice

Active Voice: Doer of action is the subject.The structure of sentence in active voice will be:Sub(doer)+ Verb+ Object (the work).

Passive Voice: Work is the subject and doer receives the action. Passive voice is used- to signify work more than the doer.

76030457

Present Indefinite:passive_present
Rule:- Subject+ is/are/am +V3
Example:- Shyam gives his assignment.
                 Assignment is given by Shyam.

 

passive_voice5

 

slide_3

Present Continuous:
Rule: Subject+ is/are/am+ being+V3
Example: Shayam is giving his assignment.
                Assignment is being given by Shyam.

 

Present Perfect:

slide_4

Rule: Subject+has/have+been+V3
Example: Shyam has given his assignment.
Assignment has been given by Shyam.
 

 

passive_pastPast Indefinite:
Rule: Subject+was/were+V3
Example: Shyam gave his assignment.
Assignment was given by Shyam.
 

 

active-vs-passive-voice

 

Past continuous:slide_6

Rule: Subject+was/were+ being+V3
Example: Shyam was giving his assignment.
Assignment was being given by shyam.
  

slide_7Past perfect:

Rule: Subject+had+been+V3
Example: Shyam had given his assignment.
Assignment had been given by Shyam.

img7Future Indefinite:
Rule: Subject+shall/will+be+V3
Example: Shyam will give his assignment.
Assignment will be given by shyam.

slide_10Future perfect
Rule: Subject+shall/will+have+been+V3
Example: Shyam will have given his assignment.
Assignment will have been given by Shyam.

Indianism

1_dancer                                         Indianism

Indianism refers to a word or phrase which is a characteristic of Indian English. Indianism may also refer to the way, a sentence has been structured as if it was literally translated from an Indian language to English.The biggest problem with Indianism is that many candidates who otherwise speak good English,still unknowingly use it . For Indians, some of the expressions may not sound strange because they are used to hearing this form of English. However, a person who has not been exposed to Indian way of speaking might be at a loss at times wondering what they might have meant by saying.

In global market where spoken English is an urgent requirement, Indianism can become a barrier. So it is essential to focus on removing the mother tongue influence and the ‘Indianisms’ that creep into your English conversations.

There is a list of few terms that we (Indians) usually use though we should not be using them as per Standard English. 

1. What is your good name? (incorrect):- On the first meeting, Indians commonly start conversation with this question. In a social context in Hindi language, one would ask:- आप का शुभ नाम? But it is difficult for an English to understand the phrase ‘good name’……. So the correct sentence should be:

What is your name?

2.  Use of ‘itself’ or ‘only’ for emphasis is Indianism.
Can I meet with you today itself? (Incorrect)
Can I meet with you today? (Correct)
We’ll need to have our lunch here itself. (Incorrect)
We’ll need to have our lunch here. (Correct)
We arrived today only. (Incorrect)
We arrived today. (Correct)

3.Use of back with return or revert
He returned it back to me.(Incorrect)
He returned it to me. (Correct)
He will revert back to me. (Incorrect) 
He will revert to me. (Correct)

4. Do the needful
Do the needful is very old-fashioned English, It went out of style decades ago, about the time the British left. This term is outdated all over the world except in India.
Please do the needful. – Incorrect
Please do what is necessary or needed. – Correct
Please do the needful to attend the mentioned training. Incorrect
Please do what is necessary to attend the meeting. – Correct

5. Use of more/much with prefer or better: Prefer means to like more and better is a comparative, so these words do not take more or much.
This is more preferable. (Incorrect)
This is preferable. (Correct)
I prefer this more than that one. (Incorrect)
I prefer this to that one. (Correct)
This option is more better. (Incorrect)
This option is better. (correct)

 6. Prepone is a word invented by us (Indians) for our convenience. Apparently, this phrase has become so popular that it’s even been added to a few dictionaries.

I have preponed the meeting. – Incorrect
I have rescheduled the meeting to 10.00 A.M . – Correct 

7. Do one thing is another popular phrase in indian English as a direct translation of “ek kaam karna” and this usage is incorrect. One thing can be ten things, but it is still one thing.
Let’s do one thing, let’s order both Chinese and north Indian food.Incorrect
Let’s order both Chinese and north Indian food.Correct

8. Please intimate me
To intimate is a rare verb meaning to inform someone privately. And it should not be used as a substitute of to inform.
Please intimate me. – Incorrect
Please inform me – Correct

9. Out of Station
Out of Station is widely used in India which is incorrect. Station can be understood as railway station.
Sorry, I can not talk to you right now. I am out of station. 
Sorry, I can not talk to you right now. I am out of town/city/Dehradun. Correct

10. ‘Passing out’
When you complete your studies at an educational institution, you graduate from that institution.You do not “pass out” from that institution.To “pass out” refers to losing consciousness or you just passed through a place. When we call passing out parade, it is correct because Army is parading and passing out.

OTA__PASSING_OUT_68903f

Passing Out Parade

I pass out from this institution- incorrect
I graduated from this institution – correct 

11. Year back
For the action of past, we should use the expression- year ago and not years back. Back is used for backside.
I bought this house years back- incorrect
I bought this house years ago- correct

12. Discuss about
The word discuss means talk about. So the preposition about with discuss means, you use about two times.
Let us discuss about politics. Incorrect
(that would be like saying, Let us talk about about politics)
Let us discuss politics.correct

13.Order for
The verb, order will not take preposition ‘for’ with it.
I am hungry. Lets order for a pizza. incorrect
I am hungry. Lets order a pizza. Correct.

14. Myself, followed by your name is wrong.Myself is a reflexive pronoun and should not be used as a subject.
Myself is Rohit. Incorrect
I am Rohit. correct

15.Talk vs speak
Speak is bit more formal than talk and is often used in polite request.
He can talk four language. He can speak four language.
Stop speaking nonsense. Stop talking nonsense.
Hello, could I talk to Mr Jones, please? 
Hello, could I speak to Mr Jones, please?

16. words without preposition ‘of’
Time waste  ————- Waste of time
It is time waste ——- It is a waste of time.
My Family members———- Members of my family
I went on holiday with my family members.
I went on holiday with members of my family.

17. Overuse of basically and actually.
I basically belong to Dehradun. Incorrect
I belong to Dehradun. Correct

18. Use of having with an object is incorrect. We can not have an object as food.
A. Would you like to have Lunch with me? 🙂
B. Oh! I am having it right now. 
A. Are you having a pen?
B. No, I can’t have a pen as food. 😛
A. Means? :/
B.You should say, “Do you have a pen?” or “Are you carrying a pen with you?” 🙂 Be careful of Indianism. 
Some more examples of Indianism :

An interesting article, posted in a newspaper about indianism.
Femina1