The word communication is derived from a latin word communicare which means to share or exchange information, news and views etc. The oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines the word communication as the ‘activity or process of expressing ideas and feelings or of giving people information’. In brief communication can be called an act of transferring an idea or some news from one person to another.

Pauley and Riordan write, “Communication is the act of transmitting an idea from one person to another. Communication always requires at least two people, the sender of the message and its receiver”.

According to Keith Davis, “Communication is the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another person. It is a way of reaching other with facts, ideas, thoughts and values”

American Management Association defines communication as “behavior that results in an exchange of meaning.”

Larry A.Samover writes, “We are born into and live in a society that we share with other people and it is communication that enables us to function in that society”.

Communication is the process of sharing one’s knowledge, interests, attitudes, opinions, feelings and ideas with other person. It is a two-way process of reaching mutual understanding, in which participants not only exchange (encode-decode) information, news, ideas and feelings but also create and share meaning.

The process of communication:


Communication is a two-way process that can be divided as:

1. Ideation: In order to begin any kind of communication one should be clear about the message. Ideation is when one conceives an idea and wants to share it. Selection of the idea depends on analysis of the audience. One must be able to answer the questions:-‘what to say and to whom to say it?’

2. Encoding: The sender encodes the idea. It is the process of converting ideas, feelings and facts into words or actions. One must know how to express the idea in terms of language, so that receiver will understand. The language must also be one that is easily understood by the audience. The sender should know to organize the expression in an appropriate manner with proper accent,intonation, grammar and vocabulary.

3. Channel:- Channels are medium of transmission of the information. To physically transmit the message to your receiver, one has to select the communication channel.(verbal or non- verbal, spoken or written) and a medium (letter, telephone, email, report). One should select medium according to the audience and information.

4. Decoding:- Decoding is absorbing and understanding of the message by the receiver. It is the process of converting the encoded message into a form, understood by the receiver. The proper comprehension of a message depends on the use of appropriate channel. And if there is no barrier to communication the receiver interprets the message correctly and responds in desired way.

5. Feedback:- Feedback is considered the most important step as it enables us to evaluate the effectiveness of message. Communication will be called incomplete without feedback. Feedback can be positive or negative, completes the process of communication.

Interpersonal communication may fail also. In many communications, the message may not be received exactly the way the sender intended. Therefore, it is important that the communicator seeks feedback to check that their message is clearly understood.

Barrier to Communicationimages (2)

Barriers to communication are the difficulties which distort the message being properly understood by receiver.Effective communication involves overcoming these barriers and conveying a clear and concise message. 

Some of the barriers are:

Physical Barrier

This occurs when communication is hindered due to physical disturbances. some physical barriers are:

  • Environment: It is due to environmental discomfort like  poor light, climatic disturbances.If a receiver of a communication works in an area with bright lights, glare on computer screens will probably experience communication breakdowns on a regular basis.
  • closed territories(door):- it is when the receiver of message is physically far away from the sender due to closed territories. Receiver is unable to see the non-verbal cues, gestures, posture and general body language.imagesCA0LUCZV
  • Noise:- Noise can be an interference with the decoding of messages sent over a channel by an encoder. Environmental noise is the noise that physically disrupts communication for example, standing next to loud speakers at a party.

Psychological barrierimages (4)

Psychological barrier is due to mental disturbances. Anxiety, fear, stress, attitude, perception, Lack of attention, interest etc. The term psychological barrier is the self limiting belief, a person may have which in turn affects his behavior . 

  • Attitude– A person with negative attitude will not be able to establish an effective channel with anyone. No one can explain the person who is not ready to listen or understand.
  • Perception– Perception is awareness, comprehension or an understanding of something. Different people may have different perceptions for the same thing. Due to different perceptions,the same information can be perceived positively or negatively by the different receivers.images (5)Prejudices or prejudgment– When people start making judgement on the basis of their prejudices they are unable to communicate effectively.
  • Personality traits- A person having negative personality is not ready to involve in communication effectively.

Semantic/language barrier 

When communication is disrupted due to linguistic inabilities, it is known as semantic barrier. Semantics is related to meaning of words. It is related to connotative and denotative meanings of words and its study. If the encoder and decoder do not share the some connotative meaning for a word, miscommunication occurs.


Some of the semantic barriers can be:

  • Misinterpretation of words 
  • Language differences and the difficulty in understanding unfamiliar accents.
  • Ambiguous words or sentences: words lacking clarity lead to major semantic barrier.
  • Use of Jargon(technical terms) 
  • Symbols or Words with Different Meanings: A symbol or a word can have different meanings. If the receiver misunderstands the communication, it becomes meaningless.

Cultural differences 

The norms of social interaction vary greatly in different cultures, as do the way in which emotions are expressed. For example, the concept of personal space varies between cultures and between different social settings.

Organizational Barrier

Every organization has its own structure and communication techniques. Rigid hierarchy and complexity of structure causes communication barriers.

The main organizational barriers are:

  • Long chain command:– Organizations having long chain of commands(more number of layers of communication channels), the information is distorted at each level because of poor listening and lack of concentration.
  • Negative attitudes in the work place:- Negative attitudes is spread due to different groups, made due to individual and cultural differences. This can become the reason of conflicts which hamper the growth of an organization.
  • Improper channel of communication- If there are disturbances in the medium of communication such as intranet,or intercom, it can hamper the communication.

Notes: Telephonic Conversation

Basic Business Etiquette and protocols for the Telephone
  1. Always start with a pleasant greeting. Saying, “Hello, my name is (your name) and I am calling from (name of business). How are you today?” It is a pleasant way to start the conversation and helps the person you are speaking with by sharing who you are and what business you are associated with. It also opens the door for positive conversation as you take a moment to enquire about them.

Always identify yourself properly. When calling a client or customer, whether in person or when leaving a message, always identify oneself properly by providing name, company name and contact telephone number. For example, “Good afternoon Mr. Brown, this is Ms. Brown from My telephone number is 408-555-1212.” Always be aware of confidential information when leaving messages. Also, be aware of people around you while talking on the phone. Be discreet!  Someone next to you might overhear confidential information that could negatively affect your business.

  1. Speak clearly. A picture paints a thousand words but the caller on the other end of the phone can only hear you. They cannot see your face or body language. Therefore, taking the time to speak clearly, slowly and in a cheerful, professional voice is very important.
  2. Use your normal tone of voice when answering a call. If you have a tendency to speak loud or shout, avoid doing so on the telephone.
  3. Do not eat or drink while you are on telephone duty. Only eat or drink during your coffee break or lunch break.
  4. Do not use slang words or Poor Language. Respond clearly with “yes” or “no” when speaking. Never use swear words.
  5. Address the Caller Properly by his or her title. (i.e. Good morning Mr. Brown, Good afternoon Ms. Sanders). Never address an unfamiliar caller by his or her first name.
  6. Listen to the Caller and what they have to say. The ability to listen is a problem in general but it is very important to listen to what the caller has to say. It is always a good habit to repeat the information back to the client when you are taking a message. Verify that you have heard and transcribed the message accurately.
  7. Be patient and helpful. If a caller is irate or upset, listen to what they have to say and then refer them to the appropriate resource. Never snap back or act rude to the caller.
  8. Always ask if you can put the caller on hold. If you are responsible for answering multiple calls at once, always ask the caller politely if you may put them on hold. Remember that the caller could have already waited several minutes before getting connected to you and may not take lightly to being put on hold. Never leave the person on hold for more than a few seconds or they may become upset and hang up.
  9. Avoid leaving long winded messages. Remember, someone has to listen to your message, write it down and then act upon it. Your message may be just one of many messages that need to be handled. It is often a good habit to write down or type out your message in advance. Keep it brief and to the point.
  10. Always focus on the call. Try not to get distracted by people around you. If someone tries to interrupt you while you are on a call, politely remind them that you are on a customer call and that you will be with them as soon as you are finished.
  11. Always be courteous and calm on the phone. Everyone prefers a kind and courteous phone conversation, in any language! It is helpful if you are smiling on the other end of the line. The smile comes across in your tone and the person you are speaking with will be able to hear it in your voice. Since telephone conversations are limited to the words and tone that you use and do not include any visual forms of communication it is important to get the wording and tone correct for your conversation.
  12. If you need to place the person on hold, be sure to communicate that with them and then wait for their response. For example, say, “May I place you on hold for a moment?” and allow them to agree before doing so. Always use the hold button your phone instead of covering the mouthpiece with your hand as it is much more professional. Also, if it happens that your caller is on hold for more than a few minutes, it is important to check in with them. Nobody likes feeling as if they have been forgotten on the line. Simply pick up the line and say something like, “Thank you for waiting, it should only be a few more minutes.” This way your caller is assured they are being taken care of even when they are not speaking to you.
  13. At the end of a business call it is customary to enquire if there is anything else you can do for the person you are speaking with. Simply asking, “Do you have any other questions?” or, “Is there anything else I can help you with today?” if it is appropriate is a nice way to show that you have engaged with the person on the phone and are interested in their satisfaction.

Telephone Interview

Prepare your body, mind, and physical appearance as you would for an in-person interview. Get proper sleep, eat nutritiously, and groom and dress so that you feel at your best and can present as an energetic and enthusiastic candidate.Ensure that you have a pen/paper close by, as well as a copy of your resume, questions that you want to ask the employer, and a copy of any documents that you submitted to the employer earlier (e.g., cover letter, transcript). Make sure that you re-read the position description before the interview begins, and have a copy of the description on hand. Turn off call waiting so that the interview is not interrupted, remove or turn off any possible distractions in the interviewing space (e.g., alarm clocks, TVs, cell phones, noisy animals, or roommates), and close the door.

During the Interview Tips

  • Don’t, chew gum, eat, or drink.
  • Keep a glass of water handy in case you need to wet your mouth.
  • Smiling will project a positive image to the listener and will change the tone of your voice.
  • Sit up straight at a table or desk, or stand up – your voice will sound stronger and you may feel more self-assured.
  • Speak directly into the phone, speak slowly, and enunciate clearly.
  • Feel free to gesture as you normally would while engaged in conversation.
  • Use the person’s title (Mr. or Ms. and his or her last name.) Use a first name only if the interviewer asks you to. If multiple people interview you, jot down their names and titles for future reference.
  • Have your resume and supporting materials nearby, but don’t read directly from them.
  • Don’t interrupt the interviewer and give the interviewer ample time to speak as well.
  • Take your time – it’s perfectly acceptable to take a moment or two to collect your thoughts.
  • Keep answers brief and concise.
  • Remember your goal is to set up a face-to-face interview. After you thank the interviewer, reiterate your interest in the position and say that you would appreciate the opportunity for an in-person interview.

After the Interview:

Immediately jot down notes about what you were asked and how you answered. Note parts of the conversation that you feel went very well, and perhaps aspects that didn’t go as well (for use in future interview preparation). Identify points that you would like to clarify or expand on in a follow-up interview, topics that require additional research or preparation, and additional questions that you have for the interviewer.

Send a thank-you note.

For Interviewers

  • Remember that during the interview process, candidates are deciding whether they want to work for you just as much as you are trying to decide whether to hire them. You have only about an hour to make a good impression on the candidate. Follow these steps:
  • Write down a list of questions that directly relate to the job’s responsibilities.“If you don’t have a job description, list the key responsibilities of the position, and then draw up a list of questions that relate to those responsibilities,” says John Dooney, manager of strategic resource for the Society for Human Resources Management, a nonprofit association for human resources professionals.
  • Ask behavioral questions,as in “tell me about a time when you…” Ask for specific examples of past performance and behaviour, says Dooney. Previous successes are a good indicator of future performance.
  • Review the candidate’s resume before the interview.This may seem obvious, but by preparing your interview questions and reviewing the resume, you are showing the candidate you have taken the time to ensure a productive interview.
  • Outline the interview structure for the candidate.First, give a brief description of the company, and then outline the job duties. Finally, ask the applicant questions. After that, the candidate will have the opportunity to ask you questions. This sets up the parameters of the interview, keeps you both focused, and gives the candidate an idea of what to expect.
  • Ask job interview questionsthat keep the candidate talking, such as: How did you do that? Why so? Please tell me how you made that happen? What were the most important steps you took to make that happen? Such open-ended questions dig beneath a candidate’s initial, pre-planned answers and programmed responses to find out what he or she really did.
  • Don’t talk too much during the interview process. Dooney suggests hiring managers should talk only about 30 percent of the time. Allow candidates time to describe their skills and qualifications during the interview. “Make sure you’ve covered all your questions and you haven’t missed anything,” Dooney adds.
  • Extend professional courtesies. Offer candidates a glass of water, and ask if they had difficulty finding the place. Be on time. Consider giving them a tour of the office. Give them an opportunity to speak with other team members or prospective coworkers, if appropriate.
  • Watch nonverbal signals.Just as you are looking for eye contact and appropriate dress, the candidate is looking for those unspoken signals from you. Be sure your tone of voice is appropriate and professional. Clearly articulate the job’s duties and the company’s mission.
  • While being polite and professional, don’t get too friendly.“Keep all your questions job-related,” says Dooney. If you spend the interview chatting, you may make a hiring decision because you liked the candidate versus whether the person is truly qualified for the job, he explains.
  • Whether it’s by email or phone, follow upto let candidates know whether they got the job. This is one more way of extending a professional courtesy and gives the interview process closure. 


Future tense

Future Indefinite= Planned action which has not occurred/happened yet and will occur/happen in future


Future Continuous= On going action in future

image038 (1)







Future perfect=  action thought to be completed in future


Future perfect continuous: Continued or ongoing action that will start in future and is thought to be continued till sometime in future


Past tense

Past Indefinite tense= action happened in the past


 Past indefinite takes IInd form of the verb


past simps

Past Continuous= Going on action in the past.

past-simple_past-continuouspast continuous1

Past Perfect=  action occurred before a specific time in the past.
Ex. She only understood the movie because she had read the book.
Mohit had never been to an opera before last night.


 Past perfect continuous=Action started in the past and continued up until another time in the past


Present Tense

Simple Present= for habitual Action and universal truth

simple present

Present continuous= for going on action





Present Perfect=  for completed action



Present perfect continuous= for action partially completed/happened and partially going on

grammar cartoon present perfect continuous


Modal verbs

Modal Verb Usage Example

request (informal)


A: Can you give your notes?

B: Yes, you can consult my notes.

 ability He can drive well.
Possibility I can do better.

 Past tense of ‘can’ ( ability of past)


Possibility of past

I could run fast when I was a child.

If he had money, he could buy a house.

 polite request. Could you do this for me?



I could have scored better if I had worked harder.

She asked me if I could cook for her.

May  permission (formal) Work is complete, you may leave now.

probability/ possibility

factual possibility

It may rain today.

It is cloudy. It may rain.

Purpose She works hard so that she may succeed.



Possibility Mr. Smith might be in office at this time.

 polite request


Might you buy tickets for me?
purpose in past tense (past of ‘may’) She worked hard so that she might succeed.
Shall future tense (with first person) I shall go to temple tomorrow.
Will  in future tense They will play against team B.

express request/invitation (formal)

promise and


 Will you attend the function tomorrow?

Yes! I will go without any fail.

Should Suggestion/advisability You should brush your teeth after every meal.
  assumption/expectation Dinner should be ready by now.
with conjunction ‘lest’ to imply reason Run slow lest you should fall down.
Must  compulsory suggestion You must follow the instructions of your guide.
necessity or obligation  She must take medicines to recover from illness.
dutiful activity  A judge must be neutral.

 polite request (formal)


Would you like to accompany me for the party?



condition of imaginary past

(‘Would’ is past form of will/ shall.)


Unreal condition


I would have selected in NDA if I worked hard.

I would have attended the function but I was busy.

Would that I were young again!

Intention I would suffer rather than borrow.

Strong probability

moral obligation


Ought is always followed by an infinitive ‘to’

She ought to reach Delhi by now.

We ought to obey our elders

Manu ought to get promotion.



‘Ought not’ is used primarily to express negative recommendations


Jimmy ought not to smoke.



Need+ not


Doubt/ prohibition

She needs to take lunch now.

You do not need to attend the meeting.



take a venture How dare you do this to me?
Used to Discontinued habit I used to visit my hometown every year.


Fill in the blanks with suitable Modal Auxiliary verbs given in the brackets:

1. You……. keep your promises. (should/ought)

2. I know he speaks five languages, but ________ he speak Arabic? (can/may)

3. Work hard lest you… fail. (should/would)

4. I … punish you if you don’t behave yourself. ( shall/will)

5.  You ________ smoke so much. It’s bad for your health. (shouldn’t/ can’t)

6. Gandhi ji  … to walk in the morning. (used/ought)

7.That looks very expensive. It ________ have cost a fortune! (should/must)

8. The work… time and patience. (needs/need)

9. I … like to see that pen. (would/ might)

10. The box was so heavy that I … not lift it. (can’t/ couldn’t)

11. She… be at home by now but it’s not sure at all. (may/ might)

12…. God help you! ( May/ might)

13. She … to answer. (doesn’t dare/ daren’t)

14. I … him to jump. (dared/ daren’t)


1. should 2. can 3. should ( ‘work hard lest you should fail your examination’ lest introduces the danger of things to be avoided: if you don’t work hard, you will fail your examination.) 4.will (definitely punish you) 5. shouldn’t 6. used 7. must 8. needs 9. would 10. couldn’t (past of can) 11. might (‘might’ suggests a smaller possibility that ‘may’) 12. May 13. doesn’t dare (  it is used to venture, to have the courage or impudence. In this sense it is used mainly in negative statements.14. dared